Basic Computer Hardware
Why should we learn about the parts of the computer? I know that many of us understand the computer and its systems well. On the other hand, there are people who think about fixing and updating their computer only after something goes wrong with the computer system. They would like to work on it, but they are not ready to maintain it and update it.
Maintain, improve your own computer easily!
You can repair, improve, and maintain even build your own computer. All you have to do is learn how computer parts work together and how they can be maintained and improved.
How do I do it? Continue to learn about computers and how their parts function together. Once you understand the basics of each section, it will be easier for you to maintain your computer. Plus, you will save time and money.
Here is some of the content that you can find on this page:
- What Is Hardware?
- Components of Computer Hardware:
- List of Computer Hardware and Software
- Types of computer hardware
- Computer Hardware Parts and Functions
Ok, let's go ahead and open the computer and see what's inside. Surely you will find it fun and interesting!
What Will You Learn in this Course?
What Is Hardware?
The word “Hardware” link up to the physical elements of a computer. This is also sometimes called the machinery or equipment of the computer.
The keyboard, monitor, mouse, and system unit are examples of basic computer hardware. However, most computer hardware cannot be seen. In other words, it is not an external element of the computer, but rather an internal element, surrounded by the computer case.
The hardware of a computer is made up of many different parts, but perhaps the most important of these is the motherboard. The motherboard is made up of those parts that use power and control the computer.
In contrast to software, basic computer hardware is a physical entity. Here Hardware and software are interlinked with each other as without software; the hardware of a computer would have no function. However, without the creation of hardware to perform tasks run by software through the central processing unit, the software would be useless.
Hardware is limited to specially designed tasks taken independently, very simple. The software implements an algorithm that allows computers to complete far more complex tasks.
Components of Computer Hardware:
Here are some of the basic computer hardware components that you often find in modern computers. These parts are almost always found inside the computer home, so you won't see them unless you open the computer:
Computer Hardware - Is a physical part / intangible part of the computer.
Example: Input devices, output devices, central processing units, and storage devices
Computer Software – It is also known as a program or application. They are classified into two classes, namely: Software and application software
Liveware – It is a computer user. Also known as humanware. The user instructs the computer system to execute instructions.
List of Computer Hardware and Software
• Central Processing Unit (CPU)
• Random Access Memory (RAM)
• Power Supply
• Video Card
• Hard Drive (HDD)
• Solid-State Drive (SSD)
• Optical Drive (e.g., BD/DVD/CD drive)
• Card Reader (SD/SDHC, CF, etc.)
• Windows Computers:
• Microsoft Windows 7 Operating System
• Adobe Acrobat Professional
• Adobe Reader
• Google Chrome
• Microsoft Internet Explorer
• Microsoft Office (Word, Excel, PowerPoint)
• Microsoft Windows Media Player
• Media Player Classic
• Sophos AntiVirus
• Mac iOS Operating System
• Adobe Acrobat DC
• Google Chrome
• Microsoft Office (Word, Excel, PowerPoint)
• Sophos antivirus
• Stuff-It Expander
Types of computer hardware
Your computing experience consists of interactions with hardware and software. Hardware is all tangible computer equipment, such as monitors, central processing units, keyboards, and mice. Casing system unit holds a number of important components.
The central processing unit (CPU)
• As you can imagine, the speed and performance of the CPU are one of the most important factors that determine how well a computer works.
• A CPU is a very small and thin silicon wafer that is enclosed in a ceramic chip and then mounted on a circuit board.
• The speed of the CPU is measured in gigahertz (GHz).
• The larger this measure, the faster the CPU can operate.
• One hertz is one cycle per second; One gigahertz is one billion cycles per second. However, the speed of the CPU is not the only measure of its performance; Different CPUs have technologies that increase efficiency and can increase the performance of data in several ways.
• A fairer comparison between two different CPUs is the number of instructions per second that they can perform.
• A type of memory, called random access memory (RAM), forms the central set of memory that a computer uses to operate.
• The more RAM a computer has, the more applications it can have open at the same time without the computer's performance starting to clog.
• More RAM can also make some applications work better in general.
• Memory capacity is measured in gigabytes (GB), which is one trillion bytes.
• Most basic computers have at least 4 GB today, and higher-level systems have 16 GB or more. Like the CPU, the memory consists of small, thin silicon wafers, enclosed in ceramic chips and mounted on circuit boards.
• Circuit cards that contain memory are called DIMMs, which means dual inline memory module.
Hard Drive (HDD)
• When the computer is turned off, everything on the hard drive remains, so you do not need to reload the software each time you turn on the computer.
• The operating system and your applications load the hard disk into memory, where they run.
• Hard disk capacity is also measured in gigabytes (GB), such as memory. A typical hard drive may have 500 GB or even 1 terabyte (1000 GB) or more.
• Most hard drives sold today are of the traditional mechanical type that uses metal trays to store data with magnetic polarity, but a newer type, called solid-state hard drive (SSHD), uses a type of memory, producing a fast, silent and reliable memory.
• Optical drives get their name by the way they write and read the data on the disk. Laser light shines on the surface and a sensor measures the amount of light that bounces from a given location.
• Some laptops come without DVD capabilities because you can download and install software or play videos and music from the cloud (i.e. through the Internet), so it is possible to get along without the ability to play DVDs.
The graphics card provides information to the screen and is used to take pictures on a computer. A monitor, through CRT or LCD, displays the images and videos on a computer by manipulating the color of the pixels on the screen.
The sound card plays sound files, produces sound for speakers, and receives sound as input from the microphone. Speakers produce audio such as music and sound effects, and headphones are used to hear sounds that are only intended for individual hearing.
Computer Hardware Parts and Functions
The keyboard is termed as the most prominent device of a computer. It contains three types of keys: alphanumeric keys, special keys and function keys. The function of each key can only be understood after working on a PC. This signal is detected by a keyboard coder who sends a binary code corresponding to the key pressed to the CPU. There are many types of keyboards, but the 101-key keyboard is the most popular.
• Typing keys (alphanumeric): These keys include the same letter, number, punctuation, and symbols found on a traditional typewriter.
• Special keys (Control): These keys are used alone or in combination with other keys to perform certain actions. The most frequently used control keys are CTRL, ALT, the Windows key and ESC.
• Function keys: The function keys helps to perform some of the specific task. They are labeled F1, F2, F3, etc., up to F12. The functionality of these keys differs from one program to another.
• Button Cursor Movement (Navigation): These buttons are used to move in documents or webpages and edit text. They include arrow keys, Home, End, Page Up, Page Down, Delete, And Insert, and Arrow Keys.
• Number keys: Number keys are useful for entering numbers quickly. Keys are grouped together in blocks such as conventional calculators or added machines.
A mouse is that device that is used to point and select items on your computer screen. Although mice have many forms, the typical mouse looks a bit like a real mouse.
A mouse usually carries two specific buttons they are a primary button (usually the left button) and a secondary button. Many mice also have a wheel between the two buttons, which allows you to move smoothly through the information screens.
To click on an item, navigate to the item on the screen, then press and release the main button (usually the left button).
Clicking is most often used to select (mark) items or open menus. This is sometimes called single-clicking or left-clicking.
To double-click, an item, navigate to the item on the screen, then double-click quickly. If two clicks are too far apart, they may be interpreted as two individual clicks and not as a single double click.
To right-click an item, point it at the screen, and then press the sub button (usually the right button), then release it.
For example: when you right-click the trash on your desktop, Windows displays a menu that allows you to open, empty, delete, or view its properties. If you do not know what to do with something, click on it with the right mouse button.
4. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
It is the brain or the heart of a computer. It is also known as a processor and consists of three units, namely:
• Control Unit (CU)
• Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
• Main Memory Unit (MMU)
• To process data
• Control of sequence of operations within computers.
• Give the command to all parts of a computer.
• Controls the use of main memory in the storage of data and instructions.
• Provides temporary storage (RAM) and permanent storage (ROM) of data.