The Mughal Empire – Introduction

At that time (The Mughal Empire), the Indian Subcontinent was full of Diversity of people and cultures. So, It was very very much a difficult task for any ruler to attain his rule on the whole Indian subcontinent. Notice that it was difficult but not impossible to do that. Mughals did it at an early age.

They control nearly all over the Indian subcontinent. Mughal Empire was a modern empire in South Asia. The Mughal Empire (Take a Free Quiz ) is said to be found in 1526 by Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur also known as Babur after defeating a Delhi Sultan named Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat.

They expanded their kingdom from Agra and Delhi in the latter half of the sixteenth century. They controlled nearly all over the Indian subcontinent until the seventeenth century.

They inflicted ideas of governance and structures of administration that survived their rule by leaving a type of political legacy that the successful rulers of the Indian subcontinent could not ignore.

As you all know that our Prime Minister of India on every Independence Day addresses the nation from the fortification (walls to protect the fort) of the Red Fort which is located in Delhi that is one of the apartments or residence of Mughal emperors.

Red Fort, Mughal Empire

This empire has ruled from 1526 to 1857 but mainly historians say that after Aurangzeb (said to be the last ruler of the empire), the emperors are declared as Later Mughals because they did not extend their empire but they reduced the empire a lot and a time came when the Mughal empire totally declined.

It was reduced mainly when the British East India Company came and defeated the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah II ruled from 1837 to 1857 for his involvement in the First War of Independence which can be described by various names, The Revolt of 1857, The Great Rebellion, The Sepoy Mutiny, The Indian Mutiny, and The Indian Insurrection.

Revolt of 1857

The decline of the Mughal empire is one of the Major Political Formations of the 18th Century. The Mughals were descendants (ancestor) of two great lineages of rulers.

They were successors of Timur (expired 1404), the ruler of modern-day Turkey, Iraq, Iran from their father’s side and they were descendants of Genghis Khan (expired 1227), the Mongol ruler who ruled the parts of Central Asia and China from their mother’s side.

Though Mughals do not like to be called Mongol or Mughal. Genghis Khan’s memory was analogous (means related) with the slaughter (death) of countless people, one of the reasons did not like to be called Mongol or Mughal for Mughals.

But then they were proud of their Timurid ancestry, just because their outstanding ancestor had seized Delhi in 1398. Now, Take a look at this picture given below:

Miniature Painting of Mughals

This miniature painting is of descendants of Timur, Timur and the mughal emperors. In the center Timur is there and his son Miran Shah on his right (great-great grandfather of Babur) and next to him is Abu Said (grandfather of Babur).

Sultan Muhammad Mirza (great grandfather of Babur) to the left of Timur and next to Sultan Muhammad Mirza is Umar Shaikh (father of Babur).

To the right of Timur after Abu Said is Babur, Akbar and Shah Jahan as third, fourth and fifth. Humayun, Jahangir and Aurangzeb in the same order to the left of Timur.

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